The National Flag - Taegeukgi

The National Flag - Taegeukgi


Following the trend for modern states to adopt national flags, the decision to create a national flag for Korea emerged with the ratification of the Korea-United States Treaty of 1882. No accurate records remain of the Korean flag chosen for use at the signing ceremony; however, some argue that the flag was si milar to the ensign flag featured in the Flags of Maritime Nations issued by the U.S. Navy Department’s Bureau of Navigation and found in 2004. In his capacity as Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary under King Gojong, Park Yeong-hyo kept a record of his diplomatic mission to Japan in 1882.

In his capacity as Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary under King Gojong, Park Yeong-hyo kept a record of his diplomatic mission to Japan in 1882. According to his journal, known as Sahwagiryak, in September of that year while aboard the ship to Japan, Park created a four-trigram flag with a taegeuk circle (instead of the flag with eight black bars that had been used prior to 1800). The flag was used from September 25, 1882, according to Park’s report to the government on October 3 of that year. By royal order on March 6, 1883, King Gojong promulgated that Park’s flag with a taegeuk circle in the center and four trigrams around it (the flag named Taegeukgi) be the national flag. However, due to a lack of specific guidelines, the flag design took different forms. On June 29, 1942, the Provisional Government issued a national flag style guide to ensure that subsequent flags would be created in a consistent manner. Despite these efforts, however, ordinary people were unaware of these guidelines.After the establishment of the Republic of Korea on August 15, 1948, the government felt an increasing need to standardize flag construction. Thus in January 1949, it formed the National Flag Correction Committee, which announced the National Flag Construction Guidelines on October 15 of that year. A number of regulations were later implemented, providing for the systematic management of the flag: the Act on the Flag of the Republic of Korea, enacted in January 2007; the Enforcement Decree of the Act on the Flag of the Republic of Korea, in July 2007; and the Regulations on the Hoisting, Management, and Promotion of the National Flag in September 2009 (by instructions from the Prime Minister).

Symbolism of the flag

The Taegeukgi consists of a white background, a red and blue taegeuk circle in the center, and four black trigrams (collectively called geongongamri), one in each corner of the flag. The white background represents brightness, purity, and peace, qualities that are highly valued by the people. The taegeuk, which has long been a commonly used motif, denotes the harmony between the negative cosmic forces (yin : blue portion) and the positive cosmic forces (yang : red portion), depicting the truth of nature that all things are created and evolve through the interaction of yin and yang. The four black trigrams are specific representations of the movement and harmony of these forces. In detail, the geon symbolizes the sky, the gon the earth, the gam water, and the ri fire. Together, they create harmony around the taegeuk mark. In short, the Taegeukgi flag embodies the vision of the Korean people who, like the universe, seek continuous creation and enrichment. By upholding the spirit and significance of the Taegeukgi, the people seek to realize unity and unification and contribute to the happiness and peace of humanity.

Construction of the Flag of Korea

Construction of the Flag of Korea

  1. ① Diameter of circle x 3
  2. ② Diameter of circle x 2
  3. ③ Diameter of circle x 1/2
  4. ④ Length of flag x 1/2
  5. ⑤ Right angle (90 degrees)
  6. ⑥ Diameter of Circle x 1/24
  7. ⑦ Diameter of circle x 1/4
  8. ⑧ Diameter of circle x 1/3
  9. ⑨ Diameter of circle x 1/12

Pledge of allegiance to the flag (revised on July 27, 2007)

I, standing before the noble Taegeukgi, solemnly pledge allegiance to the Republic of Korea, to its glory, liberty and justice.



Carbon Neutrality Scenarios

What are the 2050 Carbon Neutrality Scenarios?

2050 Carbon Neutrality Scenarios represent the future of our society and the outlook of transition by sector when carbon neutrality is achieved in 2050. These scenarios can serve as a compass to establish the directions of detailed policies, transition speeds, etc.

2050 Carbon Neutrality Scenarios

There are two scenarios, both of which aim at net-zero domestic GHG emissions. While Scenario A entails the complete elimination of thermal power generation, Scenario B actively utilizes various technologies, such as CCUS, instead of the existing thermal power generation. The emission goals by sector are summarized in the table below. See the attached scenarios for reduction strategies by sector as well as the details of the policy proposals.

Based on the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5℃, under the premise that all countries achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, assuming that there are no overseas reductions by 2050.

2050 Carbon Neutrality Scenarios

2050 Carbon Neutrality ScenariosTable for 2050 Carbon Neutrality Scenarios
Type Sector 2018 Final Remarks
Scenario A Scenario B
Emission Amount 686.3 0 0  
Emissions Energy Transformation 269.6 0 20.7
  • (Scenario A) Complete discontinuance of thermal power generation
  • (Scenario B) Partial generation of thermal power using liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Industries 260.5 51.1 51.1  
Buildings 52.1 6.2 6.2  
Transportation 98.1 2.8 9.2
  • (Scenario A) Complete transition into electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles, etc. in the road sector
  • (Scenario B) Use of alternative fuels (e-fuel, etc.) for internal combustion engine vehicles in the road sector
Agriculture, Livestock, and Fisheries 24.7 15.4 15.4  
Waste 17.1 4.4 4.4  
Hydrogen - 0 9
  • (Scenario A) Use of electrolysis for all domestic hydrogen production (green hydrogen)
  • (Scenario B) Partial supply of domestically produced hydrogen using by-products/extracted hydrogen
Omissions 5.6 0.5 1.3  
Absorption and Removal Carbon Sinks -41.3 -25.3 -25.3  
Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage (CCUS) - -55.1 -84.6  
Direct Air Capture (DAC) - - -7.4
  • Assumption that the captured carbon is utilized as an alternative fuel for vehicles

Procedure & Progress

  • Preparation of basic data for the
    2050 Carbon Neutrality Scenario
    Technical Working Group

    10 Sub-commisisons and 72 experts
    (mainly consisting of personnel from
    government-run research institutes)
    participated in predicting the potential
    GHG emissions.

  • Launching of the 2050 Carbon
    Neutrality Commission (May 2021)

    The 2050 Carbon Neutrality Commission is
    composed of experts from different
    sectors, specializing in areas related to
    the climate, energy, industry, labor,
    economy, conflict management,
    education, and communications, as well
    as the civil society, youth, workers,
    farmers, and local governments.

  • Revision of the Scenarios and
    Release of Drafts (August 2021)

    Reviewed the draft net-zero Scenarios,
    prepared by the Technical Working

  • Operated Citizens’ Coucil on
    Carbon Neutrality

    Held meetings and collected opinions
    from citizens and various sectors for two

  • Operated Citizens’ Coucil on
    Carbon Neutrality

    Selected 500 random people consisting
    of men and women aged 15 and over to
    organize the Citizens’ Coucil on Carbon
    Neutrality and collected opinions
    through Council meetings.

  • Announcement of Scenarios
    (October 2021)

    Deliberated and determined at a cabinet
    meeting .